We are currently building our list of books and articles related to the legal and human rights of children with DSDs or intersex conditions. Please check back here as this section grows. For more non-legal materials, see the bibliographies posted by the Intersex Society of North America and the DSD Consortium.

Legal Analysis

Beh, Hazel Glenn & Diamond, Milton. An Emerging Ethical and Medical Dilemma: Should Physicians Perform Sex Assignment Surgery on Infants with Ambiguous Genitalia?, 7 Michigan Journal of Gender & Law 1 (2000).

Beh, Hazel Glenn & Diamond, Milton. David Reimer’s Legacy: Limiting Parental Discretion, Cardozo Journal of Law & Gender. Vol. 13:101-126 (2006).

Beh, Hazel Glenn & Diamond, Milton. Ethical Concerns Related to Treating Gender Nonconformity in Childhood and Adolescence: Lessons From the Family Court of Australia, Health Matrix: Journal of Law-Medicine (2005).

Beh, H. G., and Pietsch, J. H.. Legal implications surrounding adolescent health care decision making in matters of sex, reproduction and gender. In M. Diamond and A. Yates (Eds.), Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics: Sex and Gender. Elsevier, Philadelphia (2004).

Ehrenreich, Nancy. Intersex Surgery, Female Genital Cutting, and the Selective Condemnation of “Cultural Practices,” 40 Harvard Civil Rights – Civil Liberties Law Review 71 (2005).

Ford, Kishka-Kamari. “First, Do No Harm” – The Fiction of Legal Parental Consent to Genital-Normalizing Surgery on Intersexed Infants, 19 Yale Law & Policy Review 469 (2001).

Greenberg, Julie & Chase, Cheryl. Background of Colombia Decisions.  (English summary of Colombian cases addressing legitimacy of parental consent for elective genitoplasty).

Greenberg, Julie. Defining Male and Female: Intersexuality and the Collision Between Law and Biology, 41 Arizona Law Review 265 (1999).

Greenberg, Julie. International Legal Developments Protecting the Autonomy Rights of Sexual Minorities, in Ethics and Intersex 87 (Sharon Systma ed., 2006).

Greenberg, Julie. Intersex and Intrasex Debates: Building Alliances to Challenge Sex Discrimination, 13 Cardozo Journal of Law and Gender 101 (2006).

Greenberg, Julie. Intersexuality and the Law: Why Sex Matters, NYU Press (2012).

Greenberg, Julie. Legal Aspects of Gender Assignment, 13 The Endocrinologist 277 (2003).

Haas, Kate. Who Will Make Room for the Intersexed?, 30 American Journal of Law and Medicine 41 (2004).

Hermer, Laura. Paradigms Revised: Intersex Children, Bioethics, & the Law, 11 Annals of Health Law 195 (2002).

Lareau, Alyssa Connell. Who Decides? Genital- Normalizing Surgery on Intersexed Infants, 92 Georgetown Law Journal 129 (2003).

Lloyd, Erin. Symposium Report: Intersex Education, Advocacy & the Law: The Struggle For Recognition and Protection, 11 Cardozo Women’s Law Journal 283 (2005).

Martin, Patricia L. Moving Toward an International Standard in Informed Consent: The Impact of Intersexuality and the Internet on the Standard of Care, 9 Duke Journal of Gender, Law & Policy 135 (2002).

Rosato, Jennifer L. Using Bioethics Discourse to Determine When Parents Should Make Health Care Decisions For Their Children: Is Deference Justified?, 73 Temple Law Review 1 (2000).

San Francisco Human Rights Commission, Report: A Human Rights Investigation into the “Normalization” of Intersex People (April 2005).

Tamar-Mattis, Anne & Diamond, Milton. Letter: Managing Variation in Sex Development. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 2007 Apr;20(4):552-3.

Tamar-Mattis, Anne. Exceptions to the Rule: Curing the Law’s Failure to Protect Intersex Infants, 21 Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice 59 (2006).

Tamar-Mattis, Anne. Sterilization and Minors with Intersex Conditions in California Law, California Law Review, Vol. 3, April 2012.

Medical Perspectives

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Bioethics. Informed Consent, Parental Permission and Assent in Pediatric Practice, 95 Pediatrics 314 (1995).

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Bioethics. Sterilization of Minors with Developmental Disabilities, 104 Pediatrics 337 (1999).

American Academy of Pediatrics, Timing of Elective Surgery on the Genitalia of Male Children With Particular Reference to the Risks, Benefits, and Psychological Effects of Surgery and Anesthesia, 97 Pediatrics 590 (1996).

Consortium on the Management of Disorders of Sex Differentiation. Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Disorders of Sex Differentiation in Childhood (2005).

Creighton, Sarah M., et al. Objective Cosmetic and Anatomical Outcomes at Adolescence of Feminising Surgery for Ambiguous Genitalia Done in Childhood, 358 Lancet 124 (2001).

Hughes, I.A., et al. Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders, Archives of Disease in Childhood (2006).

National Institutes of Health. Strategic Plan for Pediatric Urology: NIDDK Research Progress Report, NIH Publication No. 06-5879 (Feb. 2006).

Bioethics/Multidisciplinary Materials

Breault, Joseph L., “Protecting Human Research Subjects: The Past Defines the Future,” The Ochsner Journal, 2006.

Diamond, Milton, “Developmental, Sexual and Reproductive Neuroendocrinology: Historical, Clinical and Ethical Considerations,” Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, Volume 32, Issue 2, April 2011, pages 255-263.

Dreger, Alice Domurat, Ambiguous Sex” – Or Ambivalent Medicine? Ethical Issues in the Treatment of Intersexuality,” 28 Hastings Center Report 24 (1998).

Dreger, Alice Domurat, Intersex in the Age of Ethics (1999).

Dreger, Alice Domurat, Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex (Harvard University Press, 2000).

Karkazis, Katrina, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience (Duke University Press, 2008).

Kessler, Suzanne, Lessons from the Intersexed (Rutgers University Press, 1998).

Parens, Erik, ed., Surgically Shaping Children: Technology, Ethics, and the Pursuit of Normality (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006).

Preves, Sharon, Intersex & Identity: The Contested Self (Rutgers University Press, 2003).

Reagon, Bernice Johnson, “Coalition Politics: Turning the Century” (Essay, widely anthologized).

Reis, Elizabeth, Bodies in Doubt: An American History of Intersex (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009).

Somers, Chris, Reibel, Tracy, & Whyatt, David, Intersex and Androgyny and Implications for Provision of Primary Health Care, Combined Universities Centre for Rural Health (2010).

Sytsma, Sharon, Ethics and Intersex (2006).

Tamar-Mattis, Anne, Film Review: XXY Offers a New View of Life in an Intersex Body, 24 Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice (2009).

Psychological Perspectives

Fisher, Sylvia K., ed., Improving Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes for LGBT Youth: A Guide for Professionals, Brookes Publishing Company, 2012.